SSH, SCP, and SFTP

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© CA. Königsberg, Fotolia

© CA. Königsberg, Fotolia

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SSH offers a secure approach to working on remote machines and encrypted data transfer. We'll show you other benefits of the secure shell.

SSH stands for "secure shell" and refers to both the protocol and the program itself. The OpenSSH [1] program suite, developed by the OpenBSD project, offers users a free SSH alternative with everything necessary to use encrypted connections on many operating systems: command-line tools for working on remote machines, the ability to execute programs remotely (including graphical applications via X11 forwarding) or to tunnel Internet services via SSH (and thus secure a connection against sniffing), tools for secure file copying, and more. Table 1 gives you an overview of the major applications.

OpenSSH is a mainstay of any recent Linux distribution, so installation is quite straightforward. Most systems offer separate packages for the client and the server. Although the client typically is pre-installed, setting up the server often is necessary if you want to access your Linux computer via SSH from another machine. Searching for openssh in your package manager should reveal the correct package.

In this article, I will investigate the use of hostkeys, how to verify hostkey fingerprints, how to manage private keys with the SSH agent (including temporary management), how to tunnel SSH connections with the integrated SOCKS proxy, and how to transfer data interactively via secure ftp.

Hostkey

On first establishing contact, the other end of the connection reveals its public hostkey fingerprint (Figure 1). When warned that the authenticity of the machine has not been verified, you need to say yes, and then you will be prompted to enter the password.

Figure 1: On initial login, the remote machine uses its hostkey to identify itself.

The remote system's hostkeys are stored in the ~/.ssh/known_hosts file. The next time you log in to the machine, SSH will check to see whether the key is unchanged and, if not, will refuse to cooperate: WARNING: REMOTE HOST IDENTIFICATION HAS CHANGED!. This example could be a deliberate attempt at a man-in-the-middle attack, but a changed hostkey often has a more harmless explanation: The administrator changed the key or reinstalled the system. If you are sure that the explanation is harmless, you can launch a text editor, open the ~/.ssh/known_hosts file, and delete the entry in question.

The /etc/ssh directory stores both the private and public hostkeys. If an administrator has published the public key fingerprint (/etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key.pub), you can verify the fingerprint on initial contact before accepting the connection. The ssh-keygen tool helps verify the fingerprint. Set the -l option to display the fingerprint for the public key that you are prompted to specify.

If, for example, a user called petronella wants to log in from a machine called samesame (Figure 1), and the administrator – on a machine called macnugget – wants to verify the hostkey fingerprint, the administrator would follow the steps in Listing 1.

Listing 1

Verify Hostkey Fingerprint

01 nonumber
02 # ssh-keygen -l
03 Enter file in which the key is (/root/.ssh/id_rsa): /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key
04 2048 a0:0a:aa:3b:d3:08:f1:90:45:4f:48:c9:f6:cb:92:37 /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key.pub

Agent X Is Watching

Creating an SSH key, and thus supporting authentication without entering a password, might save typing but could also compromise security. Local, private keys are not safeguarded, which opens up the gates to an attacker should keys go astray.

By managing your private keys, the ssh-agent program gives you a more sensible approach. At the start of an ssh-agent session, you only need to enter your password once per key.

The versatile agent will run in the background as a daemon or you can call it like any normal program. Using the -t option, you can set a timer for the ssh-agent as an extra security feature. After the preset period has elapsed, the agent will forget any keywords it has stored; just specify the password lifetime with the -t parameter. ssh-agent understands various units: no unit or s means seconds, m minutes, h hours, d days, and w weeks.

To launch the agent as an independent daemon and configure the agent to forget any keys you have added after two days, enter:

ssh-agent -t 2d

The output shows what values to set for the environment variables $SSH_AUTH_SOCK and $SSH_AGENT_PID for ssh-agent to work properly. To evaluate the output, you can either copy the program output and paste it or use eval when you launch the program:

$ eval $(ssh-agent -t 2d)

On launch, the program reveals its process ID, as confirmed by the subsequent call to ps (Figure 2). Even if you close the shell, the agent will not terminate on its own.

Figure 2: ssh-agent requires various environmental variables and discloses its PID when starting.

To terminate the program, you need to call ssh-agent -k in the shell in which you launched ssh-agent. If you can't do so – because the calling shell is no longer running, for example – your only option is the kill command:

$ kill 29692

To run ssh-agent with an application – such as a terminal program – rather than as a daemon, specify the name of the executable at the command line,

$ ssh-agent gnome-terminal &

which restricts the agent to this application and any programs launched in it. If you quit the terminal, this automatically terminates the ssh-agent and removes any key information it used.

Be aware that some distributions, including the current crop of Debian versions, launches the ssh-agent program with the X environment. Calling ps | grep, as shown in Figure 2, is the best way to check for this. Loading keys into the agent without time restrictions and then forgetting to lock the screen can mean security exposure. To rid your system of this bad habit, you might want to modify your /etc/X11/Xsession.options file and comment out the line

use-ssh-agent

by inserting a pound sign (#) at the start of the line.

Keys for Agents

After launching the agent, you need to add your private keys. The ssh-add program takes care of this. Without any additional parameters, you can call the tool and let it automatically search the ~/.ssh directory for private keys and request an identity for the password, or you can pass in a key file:

$ ssh-add ~/.ssh/id_dsa

By typing the matching password, the agent will output a success message (Listing 2).

Listing 2

Matching Password

01 Enter passphrase for /home/petronella/.ssh/id_dsa:
02 Identity added: /home/petronella/.ssh/id_dsa (/home/petronella/.ssh/id_dsa)

Again, an option (-t) can provide more security. Just as when starting (ssh-agent), you can use this parameter to specify how long the agent should keep the keys. The command in line 1 of Listing 3 sets the timer to 10 minutes. The -l option returns a list of private keys managed by the agent (line 5).

Listing 3

Remove the Key

01 donumber
02 $ ssh-add -t 10m ~/.ssh/id_dsa
03 Enter passphrase for /home/petronella/.ssh/id_dsa:
04 Identity added: /home/petronella/.ssh/id_dsa (/home/petronella/.ssh/id_dsa)
05 Lifetime set to 600 seconds
06 $ ssh-add -l
07 1024 f3:c9:b6:5d:23:3a:9d:61:50:19:63:3c:e8:22:7c:86 /home/petronella/.ssh/id_dsa (DSA)
08 $ ssh-add -d /home/petronella/.ssh/id_dsa
09 Identity removed: /home/petronella/.ssh/id_dsa (/home/petronella/.ssh/id_dsa.pub)

The output shows the size (1,024 bits) and the fingerprint for the key you just added. Now you can launch SSH sessions from this shell (and from other sessions by setting the two environmental variables $SSH_AUTH_SOCK and $SSH_AGENT_PID) and log in to target machines without entering a password. The -d option, in combination with the key file name, removes the key (Listing 3, line 7). To remove all identities in one fell swoop, specify the -D option instead.

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