From SysV init via Upstart to systemd
Scramble at the Start
SysV init was formerly the sole candidate for starting processes on Linux, but today, a tech-savvy generation of init systems is waiting in the starting blocks.
For many years, the Linux kernel started the
init process as its first official act and assigned it a process ID of 1. From that point, the
init process spawned all other processes running on the system, acting as a kind of "daemon-starting daemon" that initiated the processes necessary for getting the system working at the required runlevel. SysV
init reads a list of configured processes in the
/etc/inittab file and then shuffles through the runlevels (Figure 1).
At each runlevel, init – supported by init scripts – launches various services and does not stop until it reaches the originally envisaged target runlevel for the system. In the case of a Debian system with a runlevel target of 1, for instance, the user has no network connection or graphical interface but can still use local applications. When you shut down the computer,
init terminates any running processes to leave the system in a safe shutdown state.
Buy this article as PDF
According to a report, many potential victims of the Heartbleed attack have patched their systems, but few have cleaned up the crime scene to protect themselves from the effects of a previous intrusion.
DARPA and NICTA release the code for the ultra-secure microkernel system used in aerial drones.
Should you trust an online service to store your online passwords?
New B+ board lets you build cool things without the complication of a powered USB hub.
Redmond rushes in to root out alleged malware haven.
New initiative will bring futuristic virtual reality effects to the web surfing experience.
Dyreza malware launches a man-in-the-middle attack that compromises SSL.
New cloud combines worldwide access with local attention to data security.
A first cousin of the recent Heartbleed attack affects EAP-based wireless and peer-to-peer authentication.
FOSS community acts to protect freedom of choice for laptop devices.