An up-to-date overview of free software and its makers
Projects on the Move
Graphics can facilitate research into chemical compounds. The chemistry software, Avogadro, has no trouble handling the third dimension and has an intuitive interface that offers more than its share of functionality.
Chemistry is a science that imposes particularly exacting requirements on IT: Before researchers can start investigating complex molecular structures, they first need sophisticated software to visualize them. Without a three-dimensional view, it is easy to lose track of changes made to molecules. The free Avogadro  program (Figure 1) meets the challenge effectively and without any compromises to available features.
The chemistry program's name is a tribute to the Italian physicist and chemist Amedeo Avogadro, who created Avogadro's law in the 19th century; it states that equal volumes of perfect gases, at the same temperature and pressure, contain the same number of molecules. Avogadro also invented the constant that bears his name and that defines the number of elementary entities (usually atoms or molecules) in a physical quantity.
The developers, led by the project's initiator, Marcus D. Hanwell , are thus walking in the footsteps of a famous historical character. However, the main developer does have a PhD in physics from the University of Sheffield. He is also a KDE developer; no points for guessing that the Avogadro interface is based on Qt. Just like the underlying programming language, Python, the program not only runs on Linux, but also on Windows and Mac OS X. Version 0.9 now sees the project entering the beta phase.
Avogadro is easy to use. One of the stated aims of the project is to make it possible for students, and not just advanced research scientists, to build molecules with the program. Thanks to the Drawing tool, users can click to add elements after defining the number and type of bonds. The fragments library (Figure 2) has numerous frequently used chemical compounds, thus removing the need for the user to piece them together themselves.
In navigation mode, you can view from all sides the molecules you have built. Compounds can be rotated in all three dimensions, and a zoom feature lets you view the details. A tool for automatic optimization is based on various chemical force fields such as MMFF (Merck Molecular Force Field) and UFF (Universal Force Field).
One of Avogadro's strengths is its modular structure, which supports plugin extensions. Developers can add their own 3D rendering functions and define their own tools and commands. The interface to the multi-talented Open Babel  ensures compatibility with numerous other chemistry programs.
Open Babel, a hybrid of programs designed for end users and a toolkit for programmers, was derived from Babel's format conversion tool. It translates, detects, and converts more than 90 typical file formats used in the field of chemistry. The applications in the package help the user modify and translate them. Many free projects in the chemistry field rely on the programming library. Specialist tools for biochemistry and organic and inorganic chemistry make Open Babel an attractive starting point for developers.
The structure of version 0.9 aims to be as close to the final release as possible. This explains why the developers rewrote many sections of the code. In the process, they implemented numerous new features, including an interface to the POV-Ray  3D modeling program. It lets you use this external utility to export three-dimensional creations as PNG graphics. The internal 3D renderer can create all popular image formats, including vector graphics (Figure 3), which have the advantage of being scalable without degrading image quality.
Buy this article as PDF
Xen project announces a privilege escalation problem for Qemu host systems
Attackers can compromise an Android phone just by sending a text message
PC vendor will pre-install Ubuntu on portables in India.
More embarrassment for Adobe's embattled multimedia tool
Mozilla’s script blocker add-on could be putting malware sites on the whitelist.
The Internet community officially banishes the notoriously unsafe Secure Sockets Layer protocol.
Popular desktop environment continues the Gnome 2 legacy – with new support for the Gnome 3 toolkit.
The Obama White House has issued a memorandum telling all US government agencies they must use HTTPS for all websites and web communication.
New program will dial up security for the Firefox browser.
Red Hat's community distro embraces the cloud.