Let an AI chatbot do the work

Prompts and Completions

This is where the actual web access takes place. Line 24 creates a structure of the type CompletionRequest and stores the request's text in its Prompt attribute. The MaxTokens parameter sets how deep the speech processor should dive into the text. The price list on OpenAI.com has a somewhat nebulous definition of what a token is [6]. Allegedly, 1,000 tokens are equivalent to about 750 words in a text; in subscription mode, the customer pays two cents per thousand tokens.

The value for MaxTokens refers to both the question and the answer. If you use too many tokens, you will quickly reach the limit in free mode. However, if you set the value for MaxTokens too low, only part of the answer will be returned for longer output (for example, automatically written newspaper articles). The value of 1,000 tokens set in line 26 will work well for typical use cases.

The value for Temperature in line 27 indicates how hotheaded you want the chatbot's answer to be. A value higher than   causes the responses to vary, even at the expense of accuracy – but more on that later. The actual request to the API server is made by the CompletionStreamWithEngine function. Its last parameter is a callback function that the client will call whenever response packets arrive from the server. Line 32 simply prints the results on the standard output.

Forever Bot

To implement a chatbot that endlessly fields questions and outputs one answer at a time, Listing 2 wraps a text scanner listening on standard input in an infinite for loop and calls the function printResp() for each typed question in line 16. The function contacts the OpenAI server and then prints its text response on the standard output. Then the program jumps back to the beginning of the infinite loop and waits for the next question to be entered.

Listing 2

chat.go

01 package main
02 import (
03   "bufio"
04   "fmt"
05   "os"
06 )
07 func main() {
08   ai := NewAI()
09   ai.init()
10   scanner := bufio.NewScanner(os.Stdin)
11   for {
12     fmt.Print("Ask: ")
13     if !scanner.Scan() {
14       break
15     }
16     ai.printResp(scanner.Text())
17   }
18 }

Figure 4 shows the output of the interactive chat program that fields the user's question on the terminal, sends it to the OpenAI server for a response, and prints its response to the standard output. The bot waits for the Enter key to confirm sending a question, prints the incoming answer, and jumps to the next input prompt. Pressing Ctrl+D or Ctrl+C terminates the program.

Figure 4: The chatbot is shown here as a terminal application with OpenAI.com as the back end.

It is important to install the API token in the APIKEY environment variable in the called program's environment; otherwise, the program will abort with an error message. In Figure 4, the user asks the AI model about the advantages and disadvantages of Wiener schnitzel [7] and receives three pro and con points each as an answer. It turns out that the electronic brain has amazingly precise knowledge of everything that can be found somewhere on the Internet (and preferably on Wikipedia). It is actually capable of analyzing this content semantically, storing it in machine readable form, and answering even the most abstruse questions about Wiener schnitzel in a meaningful way. The chat binary with the ready-to-run chatbot is generated from the source code in the listings as usual with the three standard commands shown in Listing 3.

Listing 3

Creating the Binary

$ go mod init chat
$ go mod tidy
$ go build chat.go openai.go

By the way, I've found that the AI system's knowledge is not always completely correct. In the answer to the question about who the author of this column is, it lists two Perl books that I have never written (Figure 5). For reference, the correct titles would have been Perl Power and Go To Perl 5. More importantly, there's no good way to find out what's right and what's wrong, because the bot never provides any references on how it arrived at a particular answer.

Figure 5: The AI even knows the author of this column.

Setting the Creative Temperature

Programs can also ask the API to increase the variety of completions provided by the back end. Do you want the answers be very precise or do you prefer to have several varying answers to the same question in a more playful way, even at the risk of them being not 100 percent accurate?

This behavior is controlled by the Temperature parameter in line 27 of Listing  1. With a value of   (gpt3.Float32Ptr(0)), the AI robotically gives the same precise answers every time. But even with as low a value as 1, things start to liven up. The AI constantly rewords things and comes up with interesting new variations. At the maximum value of 2, however, you get the feeling that the AI is somewhat incapacitated, causing it to output slurred nonsense with partly incorrect grammar. In Figure  6, the robot is asked to invent a new tagline for the Go programming column. With a temperature setting of 1, it provides several surprisingly good suggestions.

Figure 6: With a temperature value of 1, the AI continually comes up with new suggestions.

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