Choosing the best alternative with topsispython
Better Decisions
Complex decisions require the evaluation of multiple criteria. This article shows how to support such decisions with Linux, Python, and the TOPSIS MultiCriteria Decision Model.
Zoning is the process by which a city's authorities define the type of land use that will be allowed in different areas of the city. Some of the zoning objectives include the promotion of tourism, employment, safety, and the general wellbeing of communities. As you might expect, the zoning process generates disputes due to different interests and visions.
For example, some residents might prefer to locate the industrial zone on the periphery, and others might want it in the center of the city. Which is better? The answer depends on multiple factors (Figure 1). For example, the city of Lyon, France, had its industries located in the periphery. When it suffered a strong economic collapse in the second half of the 20th century, it found itself with a deteriorated and dangerous area that needed a strong investment to be recovered. The opposite was true of Manchester, England, which had an industrial zone in the heart of the city. During the economic crisis of the 1930s, depressed industries degraded and devalued downtown properties.
Because zoning decisions affect cities for decades, an objective methodology is needed to evaluate both qualitative and quantitative factors. One evaluation option is MultiCriteria Decision Models (MCDMs).
MCDMs are models that compare multiple decision alternatives, considering both qualitative and quantitative variables. These models provide an ordered list of alternatives, from the best/optimal to the least desirable.
Several MCDM models exist. In fact, planners often use more than one model and then compare the results. One example of an MCDM model that lends itself to easy computer analysis is Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). A readymade Python module called topsispython
makes it especially convenient to apply TOPSIS techniques.
TOPSIS is used every day to evaluate multimillion dollar civic improvement projects. However, if you like to code and are interested in the possibility of applying advanced analysis tools to everyday decisions, you can find a way to use TOPSIS for much simpler tasks, such as helping you determine where to buy a house or where to go on vacation. This article introduces you to the TOPSIS analysis process and puts TOPSIS to work on a simple comparison problem.
About TOPSIS
The TOPSIS technique was developed by Hwang and Yoon in 1981 [1]. The goal of TOPSIS is to find the positive ideal solution (which maximizes benefits and minimizes costs) and the negative ideal solution (which minimizes benefits and maximizes costs). TOPSIS also calculates the alternative that simultaneously has the shortest distance from the positive ideal solution and the longest distance from the negative ideal solution.
To better explain the TOPSIS technique, take a look at Figure 2. Suppose you must select a Linux distribution to install on your new computer. There are five possible alternatives (A1, A2, A3, A4, and A5). These alternatives are evaluated with two criteria: Popularity/market share (M) and Number of available packages (P).
You can see that the highest possible value for the criterion Popularity/market share (M) is in the alternative A5, and the best value for the criterion Number of available packages (P) is the alternative A1. Then an ideal alternative would be one that combines these two values, which I call the Ideal solution (I in Figure 2). In the same way, I will define the point with the lowest possible values of both criteria and will call it the Antiideal solution (AI).
Because in the example (and in most real cases) no alternative fulfills all the requirements of the ideal solution, TOPSIS tells us that the best alternative is the one that simultaneously has the shortest euclidean distance to the ideal solution and the longest to the antiideal solution. To reach this solution, TOPSIS makes calculations in 6 steps (see the box entitled "TOPSIS Steps") [2].
TOPSIS Steps
Step 1: Calculate the normalized decision matrix
The first step is to bring the values of the criteria of each alternative to common units. Although TOPSIS does not require the use of a specific normalization procedure, vector normalization is generally used.
Step 2: Calculate the weighted normalized decision matrix
In the second step, each normalized value is weighted by the importance given. This definition of weights or importance is subjective. (In real cases, these weights are defined by a commission of external experts.)
Step 3: Determine the ideal and antiideal solutions
The third step is the calculation of the ideal (A*) and antiideal (A) solution. For cases where the criterion is a benefit, the ideal solution is the maximum value of the normalized matrix, and the minimum value will be the antiideal. In cases where the criterion is a cost (or value to be minimized), the ideal solution will be the minimum value and the antiideal the maximum value.
Step 4: Calculate the separation measures
The fourth step is to calculate the distance of each alternative to the ideal solution (Di*) and the distance of each alternative to the antiideal solution (Di).
Step 5: Calculate the relative closeness to the ideal solution
The relative closeness (Ci*) takes values between 0 and 1. Alternatives closer to 1 are closer to the ideal solution, and alternatives closer to 0 are closer to the antiideal.
Step 6: Rank the alternatives
Finally, from the relative proximity, the alternatives are ranked; the most recommended is the one that is closest to the ideal solution and farthest from the antiideal solution.
An Example
Assume you wish to define the city's optimal zone to install industries. The possible alternatives are shown in Table 1. Table 1 also shows the criteria that will be used to evaluate the alternatives (including an indication of whether the criteria seeks to maximize or minimize). The criteria are:
 C1: Cost to relocate a company that is out of the area; minimization is sought (Min).
 C2: Expected level of employment if the zone is selected; maximization is sought (Max).
 C3: Negative externalities generated (e.g., noise); minimization is sought (Min).
 C4: Positive impact on the social development of the area; maximization is sought (Max).
Table 1
Alternatives and Evaluation Criteria
Alternatives  C1  C2  C3  C4 

A1 
3.0 
100 
10 
7 
A2 
2.5 
80 
8 
5 
A3 
1.8 
50 
20 
1 
A4 
2.2 
70 
12 
9 
Seeking 
Min 
Max 
Min 
Max 
The criteria are not all equally important, so I will give them different weights. In real cases, a commission of independent experts will assign the weights, but for this example, I will define the weights of the criteria as follows (on a scale from 0 to 1, where 0 means "unimportant" and 1 means "the most important"):
C1: 0.188 C2: 0.266 C3: 0.135 C4: 0.411
To find the solution to the problem, I will use Python 3 on Ubuntu with the topsispython
module.
The first step is to open the command line and install the module [3] (Figure 3):
pip3 install topsisjamesfallon
After installing the module, use the Python interpreter to enter the problem data (Listing 1). Variable "a
" represents the alternatives/criteria values (also knows as decision matrix). Variable "w
" stores the assigned weights of the criteria. The information on minimization/maximization is provided in "I
" (Figure 4).
Listing 1
Inputting the Data
>>> from topsis import topsis >>> a = [[3, 100, 10, 7], [2.5, 80, 8, 5], [1.8, 50, 20, 11], [2.2, 70, 12, 9]] >>> w = [0.188, 0.266, 0.135, 0.411] >>> I = [0, 1, 0, 1] >>> decision = topsis(a, w, I)
Once you have input the data, the functions of the topsispython
module will perform the necessary calculations. If you want to skip directly to the final answer, calling decision.calc()
executes all the steps at once, and decision.optimum_choice
returns the optimal alternative (Figure 5). However, if you're interested in the intermediate calculations, topsispython
has separate functions that execute each of the TOPSIS steps (refer to the box entitled "TOPSIS Steps"). As shown in Listing 2, you can start by using the decision.step1
function and the decision.r
variable to calculate the normalized decision matrix (Table 2).
Listing 2
Normalized Decision Matrix
>>> decision.step1 >>> decision.r array([[0.62110337, 0.51758614, 0.37266202, 0.4554758 ], [0.64820372, 0.51856298, 0.32410186, 0.45374261], [0.37582301, 0.30065841, 0.75164603, 0.45098762], [0.42135049, 0.30096463, 0.66212219, 0.54173634]])
Table 2
Normalized Decision Matrix
Alternatives  C1  C2  C3  C4 

A1 
0.62110337 
0.51758614 
0.37266202 
0.4554758 
A2 
0.64820372 
0.51856298 
0.32410186 
0.45374261 
A3 
0.37582301 
0.30065841 
0.75164603 
0.45098762 
A4 
0.42135049 
0.30096463 
0.66212219 
0.54173634 
Then decision.step2
multiplies the normalized decision matrix by the weight associated with each of the criteria to determine the weighted normalized decision matrix (Listing 3, Table 3). As shown in Listing 4, the decision.step3
function puts the ideal solution in the decision.ab
variable and the antiideal solution in decision.aw
(Table 4). In Listing 5, decision.step4
calculates the separation measure to the ideal solution (decision.db
) and the negativeideal solution (decision.dw
) – the results appear in Table 5. Use decision.step5
and decision.C
to calculate the relative closeness to the ideal solution (Listing 6, Table 6), then finally call the decision.C
variable to get the ranking of the alternatives (Listing 7, Table 7).
Listing 3
Weighted Normalized Decision Matrix
>>> decision.step2 >>> decision.v array([[0.11676743, 0.09730619, 0.07006046, 0.08562945], [0.17242219, 0.13793775, 0.0862111 , 0.12069553], [0.05073611, 0.04058889, 0.10147221, 0.06088333], [0.17317505, 0.12369646, 0.27213222, 0.22265364]]) >>>
Table 3
Weighted Normalized Decision Matrix
Alternatives  C1  C2  C3  C4 

A1 
0.11676743 
0.09730619 
0.07006046 
0.08562945 
A2 
0.17242219 
0.13793775 
0.0862111 
0.12069553 
A3 
0.05073611 
0.04058889 
0.10147221 
0.06088333 
A4 
0.17317505 
0.12369646 
0.27213222 
0.22265364 
Listing 4
Ideal and AntiIdeal Solutions
>>> decision.step3 >>> decision.ab array([0.07006046, 0.17242219, 0.04058889, 0.27213222]) >>> decision.aw array([0.11676743, 0.0862111 , 0.10147221, 0.12369646]) >>>
Table 4
Ideal and AntiIdeal Solutions
 C1  C2  C3  C4 

Positive ideal solution 
0.07006046 
0.17242219 
0.04058889 
0.27213222 
Negative ideal solution 
0.11676743 
0.0862111 
0.10147221 
0.12369646 
Listing 5
Separation Measures
>>> decision.step4 >>> decision.db array([0.10989554, 0.1548053 , 0.10554209, 0.07601339]) >>> decision.dw 06 array([0.11160034, 0.08222631, 0.15561078, 0.11661359]) >>>
Table 5
Separation Measures
>  A1  A2  A3  A4 

Distance to the ideal solution 
0.10989554 
0.1548053 
0.10554209 
0.07601339 
Distance to the antiideal solution 
0.11160034 
0.08222631 
0.15561078 
0.11661359 
Listing 6
Relative Closeness to the Ideal Solution
>>> decision.step5 >>> decision.C array([0.50384838, 0.3469002 , 0.59586089, 0.60538555]) >>> decision.optimum_choice 3 >>>
Table 6
Relative Closeness to the Ideal Solution
 A1  A2  A3  A4 

Relative Closeness 
0.50384838 
0.3469002 
0.59586089 
0.60538555 
Listing 7
Ranking the Alternatives
>>> decision Best alternative a[3]: [ 2.2 70. 12. 9. ] >>> decision.C array([0.50384838, 0.3469002 , 0.59586089, 0.60538555])
Table 7
Ranking the Alternatives
Alternative  Result  Rank 

A4 
0.60538555 
1 
A3 
0.59586089 
2 
A1 
0.50384838 
3 
A2 
0.3469002 
4 
According to the result in Listing 7, the optimal alternative, that is, the one that maximizes the benefits and minimizes the negative externalities, is number 4 (array position 3). In addition, the result shows that the second best alternative is number 3, then number 1, and finally number 2.
Conclusion
In realworld scenarios, the number of criteria and alternatives is higher, but this example shows how to define complex problems and obtain an optimal decision in a simple way using Python, Linux, and TOPSIS.
Infos
 Hwang, C.L. and K. Yoon. Multiple Attribute Decision Making: Methods and Applications. SpringerVerlag, New York, 1981
 Papathanasiou, J. and N. Ploskas. "TOPSIS". In: Multiple Criteria Decision Aid. Springer Optimization and Its Applications, vol. 136. Springer, Cham, 2018: https://doi.org/10.1007/9783319916484_1
 topsispython module: https://pypi.org/project/topsisjamesfallon/
Buy this article as PDF
(incl. VAT)
Buy Linux Magazine
Direct Download
Read full article as PDF:
Price $2.95
News

Linux Mint Edge Is Ready for the Newest Hardware
With the release of Linux Mint 20.03 comes a new version geared for newer hardware.

Linux Mint 20.3 Now Available
That latest release of Linux Mint is now available for general use and offers a polished, but less Minty theme.

Linux is Getting an Exciting New Firmware Feature
Intel is bringing a new driver to the 5.17 kernel that will make it possible to update firmware without a reboot.

Elementary OS 6.1 Has Been Released
The .1 version of the sixth iteration of elementary OS (named Odin) is now available for download and takes the distribution to new heights of refinement.

Linux Mint 20.3 Beta is Now Available
The developers of Linux Mint have made the beta of their latest release available for download and installation.

EndeavorOS 21.4 Has Arrived
Archbased EndeavorOS 21.4 is finally available for download with plenty of new features and improvements.

NixOS 21.11 Now Available for Download
NixOS “Porcupine” has been made available for installation and includes numerous improvements.

KDE Plasma Developers Introduce a GNOMELike Overview
A new overview effect makes it easier for users to interact with both Plasma Activities and Virtual Desktops.

Rocky Linux 8.5 Now Available with Secure Boot Support
The latest iteration of CentOS alternative, Rocky Linux has arrived and includes numerous updates as well as support for Secure Boot.

System76 Developing a New Desktop Environment
The makers of Pop!_OS are currently in the early stages of creating a brand new, nonGNOME, desktop environment.